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Amorites

Ebla - Mari

Mari je prvi put napustio sredinom 26. stoljeća prije Krista, ali je obnovljena i postao glavni grad hegemonijskog istok-semitske stanje prije 2500. godine prije Krista. Ovaj drugi Mari bavi dugi rat sa svojim rivalom Ebli , a poznat je po svojim jakim afinitetom sa sumerske kulture.

Osnivači prvi grad možda bio Sumerani ili vjerojatnije East semitske govornog ljudi iz Terqa na sjeveru. IJ Gelb odnosi Mari je temelj s Kiša civilizacije, koji je bio kulturni entitet East semitskih govoreći populacije, koji se protezao od centra Mezopotamije do Ebli u zapadnoj Levant.

Na svom vrhuncu, drugi grad je dom oko 40.000 ljudi. To stanovništvo je istok-semitski govori jedan, a koristili govor mnogo sličan jezik Ebli (u Eblaite jezika), dok je u razdoblju Shakkanakku imao istok-semitski akadski govornog stanovništva. West semitske imena počelo se potvrđuje u Mari od drugog kraljevstva doba, i srednjeg brončanog-doba, zapad semitske Amorejce plemena postao većinski od pastirskih grupa u srednjem Eufrata i Khabur doline. Amorejce imena počeo se promatrati u gradu prema kraju razdoblja Shakkanakku, čak i među vladajućim članova dinastije.

Tijekom Lim doba, stanovništvo je postao pretežno Amorejce, ali također uključuje akadski zove ljude, i iako je Amorejce jezik postao dominantan jezik, akadski ostao jezik pisanja. Amorejski pastiri u Mari zove su se Haneans, pojam koji ukazuje za nomade u cjelini, Haneans su bili podijeljeni u Benu-Yamina (sinovi desno) i Benu-Simaal (bili sinovi lijevo), a vladajuća kuća koje pripadaju grana Banu-Simaal. Kraljevstvo je također dom plemena Suteans koji su živjeli u okrugu Terqa.

Drevni tekstovi od 18. prije Krista i sve je zapisano u Akadskog-jeziku, a odnose se na Amorejaca po imenu ratoborni plemena, 'Banuyamina. Značenje spoj hebrejskog imena, Banu-Yamina je još jedan oblik imena Benjamin jedan od izraelskih plemena.

Mari je bio apsolutna monarhija, s kraljem kontrolira svaki aspekt primjene, pomogao od pismoznanaca koji je igrao ulogu administratora. Tijekom Lim ere, Mari je bila podijeljena na četiri provincije osim kapitala, pokrajinski mjesta bila su smještena na Terqa, Saggaratum, Qattunan i Tuttul. Svaka pokrajina ima i svoju birokraciju.

Ebla - Mari - Yamhad - Qatna


First Eblaite Empire, c. 3000 - 2300 BC


Second Mariote Kingdom, c. 2500 - 2290 BC


Second Eblaite Empire, c. 2300. - 2000 BC


Third Mariote Kingdom, c. 2266 - 1761 BC


Yamhad, c. 1810 - 1517 BC

 

West Semitic languages

Grupiranje, uz potporu semiticists poput Roberta Hetzron i John Huehnergard, dijeli semitski jezik obitelji u dvije grane: istočne i zapadne. East semitskim jezicima sastoje od izumrlih  Eblaite i akadski jezik, dok je preostalih većina semitskih jezika čine na Zapadu semitske jezike grupacije. Sastoji se od jasno definiranih podskupine: Etiopski, Južna arapskih, arapskih i Northwest semitskih (to uključuje hebrejski, aramejski i Ugaritsko). Prva dva, etiopska i južnoarapsko, pokazuju određene zajedničke karakteristike, a često su grupirani zajedno kao Južna semitski.


Semiti - Semitic languages

West Semitic languages

 

MAR.TU

The Amorites (Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī, Ancient Greek Amorites 2Αμορίτες) were a tribe who could be found in literature, residing in such places as the Land of Canaan, land of Amurru and the Land of the Amorites. On the Ancient Egyptian monuments, the Amorite is called 'Amar (Amarii)' and in the cuneiform tablets of Tel el-Amarna, they are referred to as the Amurra. The Babylonians had called this area of Canaan in Syria-Palestine, “the land of the Amorites" and sometime referred to them as 'Westerners.' In the bible, the Amorites are physically described as a powerful people of great stature "like the height of the cedars," (Amos 2:9).

 

Amorites in the Bible

A tebi ostavljam Šekem, nešto više nego tvojoj braći, što sam ga svojim mačem i lukom osvojio od Amorejaca." - Postanak

Ja pred njima istrijebih Amorejce visoke k'o cedar, jake poput hrašća, ja uništih i plod na njima i korijen pod njima. Ja vas izvedoh iz zemlje egipatske i četrdeset vas godina vodih po pustinji da zaposjednete zemlju amorejsku. - Amos

 
Amorites

 

Ugarit

Moj otac, evo, neprijateljski brodovi došao (u ovom slučaju); Moji gradovi (?) su spaljeni, i oni radili zle stvari u mojoj zemlji. Ne moj otac zna da su svi moji vojnici i kola (?) U zemlji Hatija, i svi moji su brodovi u zemlji Lukka ? ... Dakle, zemlja je prepuštena sebi. Neka moj otac to znam. Sedam brodova neprijatelja koji je došao ovdje nanio mnogo štete na nas. - Ugarit

 

Baal (Hadad) & Anath (Inanna)

Baal (Hadad) is regularly denominated "the son of Dagan," although Dagan does not appear as an actor in the mythological texts. Baal also bears the titles "Rider of the Clouds," "Almighty," and "Lord of the Earth." He is the god of the thunderstorm, the most vigorous and aggressive of the gods, the one on whom mortals most immediately depend. Baal resides on Mount Zaphon, north of Ugarit, and is usually depicted holding a thunderbolt. He is the protagonist of a cycle of myths from Ugarit. These tell of a challenge from Yamm ("Sea"), to which Baal responds. Armed with magical weapons made by the craftsman god, Kothar, Baal manages to overcome Yamm. Another major episode is instigated by Baal's lack of a house. With the assistance of Asherah and Anath, Baal gets El's approval to build a house; Kothar accomplishes the construction; and Baal celebrates by inviting the gods to a feast. The other major story concerns Baal's relations with Mot ("Death"), whom he initially defies, but to whom he eventually succumbs. The attempt to find a god adequate to assume Baal's role fails. Anath disposes of Mot, and then El learns in a dream that Baal is again alive. Mot also reappears, and he and Baal fight until the sun goddess warns Mot of the consequences. After Baal is swallowed up by Mot, his sister Anath, called "the Maiden," longs for him like a mother. She finds Baal and buries him. She then defeats Mot and disposes of his body as if it were grain, grinding him up and scattering him over land and sea.


Amorites

In story from Ugarit, the gods grant the childless Danel a son, Aqhat, on whom Danel confers a bow made by the craftsman god, Kothar. Anath offers Aqhat riches and immortality in exchange for the bow, but Aqhat refuses her offers. After bullying El into letting her have her way with Aqhat, she proceeds, with the aid of her henchman Yutpan, to have Aqhat killed. Danel performs various rites to try to remove the consequent blight on the land, until he is informed of his son's murder. He then seeks his remains and buries him, curses the towns closest to the site of the murder, and mourns for seven years, after which he gives his blessing to his daughter's proposed mission to avenge Aqhat's death. She sets out and comes to the camp of Yutpan, where the two of them start drinking--at which point the preserved portion of the tale ends. Anath is often associated with Athtart (later Hebrew Ashtoreth, Greek Astarte). Both are renowned for their beauty, and both are closely associated with Baal.

 

Marduk

Marduk is spelled DAMAR.UTU in Sumerian, literally, "the calf of Utu" or "the young bull of the Sun".

 

Amorites & Canaanites


Canaanites delegation to Tutankhamun


Amorites & Canaanites

   
Canaanites

 
Canaanites

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