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Indo-European language

  Albanian
  Armenian
  Balto-Slavic (Baltic)
  Balto-Slavic (Slavic)
  Celtic
  Germanic
  Hellenic (Greek)
  Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani)
  Italic (Romance)
  Non-Indo-European languages

 

Kentumski & satemski jezici


Ancient languages of Europe


Indo-European origins

According to Gimbutas' version of the Kurgan hypothesis, Old Europe was invaded and destroyed by horse-riding pastoral nomads from the Pontic-Caspian steppe (the "Kurgan culture") who brought with them violence, patriarchy, and Indo-European languages. More recent proponents of the Kurgan hypothesis agree that the cultures of Old Europe spoke pre-Indo-European languages but include a less dramatic transition, with a prolonged migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers after Old Europe's collapse because of other factors.

Colin Renfrew's competing Anatolian hypothesis suggests that the Indo-European languages were spread across Europe by the first farmers from Anatolia. In the hypothesis' original formulation, the languages of Old Europe belonged to the Indo-European family but played no special role in its transmission. According to Renfrew's most recent revision of the theory however Old Europe was a "secondary urheimat" where the Greek, Armenian, and Balto-Slavic language families diverged around 5000 BCE.

Proto-Indo-European homeland
Kurgan hypothesis
Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Armenian
Armenian hypothesis
Anatolian hypothesis
Paleolithic Continuity Theory


Kurgan hipoteza - Ridiculous Barbarian Science


Kurgan hypothesis


Pontic–Caspian steppe


Tumulus - Kurgan

The Horse, the Wheel and Language ??

PIE = Barbarians

 

Yamna Technology - Mace


Mace cannot really be used for anything except cracking heads

Polished stone maces were another steppe artifact type that appeared in Tripolye B1 villages. The cat, unlike an ax, can not really be used for anything except cracking heads. It was a new weapon type and symbol of power in Old Europe, but maces had appeared across the steppes centuries earlier in DDII, Khvalynsk, and Varfolomievka contexts.

 

Yamna Spirituality - Merheleva Ridge


Merheleva Ridge

Merheleva Ridge site was built in about 4000 BC, corresponding to the Dnieper-Donets or early Yamna culture.

The site is believed to be a complex of temples and sacrificial altars topping a hill with sides sculpted into steps.

Archaeologists have confirmed that evidence of graves has been found at the Luhansk site, which they believe to have been the result of human sacrifice, rather than due to its use as a burial ground.

According to The Guardian, remains of sacrifice victims, ashes and ceramics have been found at the site, but no jewellery or treasure. The complex has a base area of three-quarters of a square mile, is estimated to be 60 metres (192 ft) high, and was probably used for 2,000 years.

In Kurgan No. 4, three graves of the Berezhnovsko-Maevskaya group of the Late Bronze Age Srubna culture were found above three graves of the Early Bronze Age Catacomb culture, with 13 graves and sacrificial pits. One of the skulls found was dated to ca. 3000 BC. Four stone statues were found near the graves.


Anatolian hypothesis

According to Renfrew (2004), the spread of Indo-European proceeded in the following steps:

  • Around 6500 BC: Pre-Proto-Indo-European, in Anatolia, splits into Anatolian and Archaic Proto-Indo-European, the language of the Pre-Proto-Indo-European farmers who migrate to Europe in the initial farming dispersal. Archaic Proto-Indo-European languages occur in the Balkans (Starčevo-Körös-Cris culture), in the Danube valley (Linear Pottery culture), and possibly in the Bug-Dniestr area (Eastern Linear pottery culture).
  • Around 5000 BC: Archaic Proto-Indo-European splits into Northwestern Indo-European (the ancestor of Italic, Celtic, and Germanic), in the Danube valley, Balkan Proto-Indo-European (corresponding to Gimbutas' Old European culture) and Early Steppe Proto-Indo-European (the ancestor of Tocharian).

The main strength of the farming hypothesis lies in its linking of the spread of Indo-European languages with an archaeologically-known event, the spread of farming, which scholars often assume involved significant population shifts.

A large number of cuneiform writings, discovered mostly on clay tablets in the Middle East, made possible greater accuracy in the research of ancient languages of the region.  Among them the Akkadian language occupies a unique position. C. Renfrew, the founder of the newest theory of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Europeans, compares Semitic languages (Akkadian is one of them) with Indo-European languages.
G. Semerano explained the Akkadian roots of a number of Greek and Latin words, which had no known etymology till now.  At the same time, he drew attention to the ancient connections between the Baltic Sea region and the Middle East, corroborated by archaeological works, and also defined by the uncontested Amber Road.  This road led from the Baltic Sea, through central Europe, and continued by boat on the Adriatic Sea to the Middle East.


Amber Road

 

The Paleolithic Continuity

The Paleolithic Continuity hypothesis reverses the Kurgan hypothesis and largely identifies the Indo-Europeans with Gimbutas's "Old Europe." PCT reassigns the Kurgan culture (traditionally considered early Indo-European) to a people of predominantly mixed Uralic and Turkic stock. Alinei argues that the use of borrowed Turkic words in horse terminology, such as qaptï ("to grab with hands and teeth"), yabu ("horse"), yam ("nomadic caravan-tent"), yuntă ("horse" (generic)), aygur ("stallion"), homut ("horse collar") and alaša ("pack horse"), in Samoyedic (Northern and Southern), in some Finno-Ugric languages and Slavic languages, "proves the antiquity of Turkic presence in the European area bordering Asia." He suggests that horse domestication originated with Turkic peoples, offering this as an explanation why horse terminology in the European area bordering Asia and in most of Eastern Europe is rooted in Turkic and not Indo-European vocabulary.

 

The Neolithic Continuity


Indo-Europeans - Ridiculous Barbarian Science

According to ridiculous barbarian science Yamna's culture was the source of civilization!

According to ridiculous barbarian science Germans, Venetians, Liburnians, Illyrians, Macedonians, Armenians, Thracians, Greeks and Romans come from Yamna culture.


Indo-European topics

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