Out of Africa

Prije sto tisuća godina svijetom su lutale tri različite skupine hominida: Homo neanderthaliensis u Europi, Homo erectus u Aziji te Homo Sapiens u Africi. Do prije 30 tisuća godina ta se raznolikost znatno smanjila. Svi ljudski fosili od prije 30 tisuća godina do danas dijele isti moderni anatomski oblik: specifičan oblik lubanje, veliki mozak (1350 cm²), izraženu kost brade, kostur nježnije grade. Što je točno uzrokovalo ovu korjenitu promjenu u jedinstveni ljudski oblik, predmet je žustrih rasprava među znanstvenicima. Dvije su međusobno suprotstavljene teorije: multiregionalnog kontinuiteta (MRC – multiregional continuity) i monogenska (OOA – Out of Africa) teorija.

Prema MRC teoriji, nakon prve migracije iz Afrike prije 1.8 milijuna godina, različite su grupe ljudi u različitim dijelovima svijeta polagano paralelno evoluirale, i sve su postupno postajale moderni ljudi (Wolporf i Caspari 1996). Prema ovoj se teoriji moderni čovjek nije pojavio u jednom području, već u različitim dijelovima svijeta, gdjegod su ljudi živjeli (odatle naziv multiregionalna). Multiregionalna evolucija različitih grupa u anatomski moderan ljudski oblik dogodila se, prema MRC teoriji, kao posljedica protoka gena između različitih grupa, koje su se dovoljno često parile da bi se izbjeglo razdvajanje u različite vrste.

Sasvim suprotno ovome, OOA drži da su moderni ljudi evoluirali prilično nedavno na jednoj lokaciji – u Africi – i zatim migrirali u Europu i Aziju, zamjenjujući sve prethodne I populacije, uključujući neandertalce (Stringer i I McKie, 1996). Drugim riječima, OOA tvrdi da su se svi moderni ljudi pojavili na jednom mjestu, ne u više područja, i zamijenili sve druge ljude, uključujući one koji su već živjeli u Aziji i Europi. Prema OOA teoriji, različite grupe koje su postojale istovremeno, poput neandertalaca i Homo sapiensa, evoluirale su u različite vrste, tako da je međusobno parenje bilo malo vjerojatno ili jako rijetko. Ukratko, OOA pretpostavlja jednu lokaciju porijekla modernog čovjeka u proteklih 100 tisuća godina, nasuprot MRC teoriji, koja smatra da ljudi vuku porijeklo iz različitih regija.

Znanstvenici su utvrdili tri temeljna izvora dokaza za provjeru točnosti ovih teorija: anatomske dokaze, arheološke dokaze i genetske dokaze.

Anatomski dokazi – pokazuju da su se neandertalci i Homo sapiens dramatično razlikovali. Neandertalci su imali veliki svod lubanje; izražene lukove obrva; masivni kostur lica; velike, vrlo istrošene sjekutiće; izbočeni središnji dio lica; donju vilicu bez izraženih kostiju brade; bili su niskoga rasta i nabijene, snažne tjelesne građe s debelim kostima. Nasuprot tome, rani je Homo sapiens izgledao poput modernog čovjeka: svod lubanje s okomitim (a ne kosim) čelom, manji kostur lica bez izbočenja srednjeg dijela, donja vilica s jasno izraženom bradom te kosti laganije, manje robusne građe. Ove velike anatomske razlike upućuju na to da su neandertalci i rani moderni ljudi bili izolirani i da se nisu međusobno parili te da je moguće da su evoluirali u dvije različite vrste. Ovi nalazi podupiru OOA teoriju.

Arheološki dokazi – oruđe i drugi pronađeni artefakti – pokazuju da su prije 100 tisuća godina neandertalci i Homo sapiens bili prilično slični. I jedni i drugi su imali kameno oruđe, no nije bilo oruđa od kostiju, slonovače ili rogova; lov je bio ograničen na manje opasne vrste; gustoća naseljenosti bila je niska; ognjišta su bila nerazvijena; nijedni nisu pokazivali sklonost za umjetnost ili ukrašavanje. Zatim se, prije 40 do 50 tisuća godina, dogodila velika preobrazba, koja se ponekad opisuje kao „kreativna eksplozija” (Johanson, 2001; Klein, 2000; Tattersall, 2000). Oruđa postaju raznolika i prilagođena različitim svrhama, a izrađuju se ne samo od kamena, već i od kostiju, rogova i slonovače. Sahrane postaju složene, a s pokojnikom se u grob stavljaju različiti predmeti. Lovci počinju loviti opasne velike životinje. Gustoća populacije buja. Dolazi do procvata umjetnosti i ukrašavanja. Nitko ne zna točno zašto se pojavila ta korjenita promjena kulturnih artefakata. Možda je nova adaptacija mozga dovela do eksplozije umjetnosti i tehnologije. No jedno znamo s priličnom sigurnošću: neandertalci nisu bili dio toga. „Kreativna eksplozija“ je bila gotovo isključivo ograničena na Homo sapiensa. Ukratko, arheološki dokazi podupiru OOA teoriju.

Genetski dokazi – nove genetske tehnike omogućavaju testove koji nisu bili mogući još prije deset godina. Danas možemo npr. doslovno proučavati DNK iz kostura neandertalaca i Homo sapiensa, kao i uspoređivati obrasce genetskih varijacija između različitih suvremenih populacija. Najstariji neandertalac čija je DNK izvađena živio je prije 42 tisuće godina u Hrvatskoj. Prvo, DNK dokazi otkrivaju da se neandertalska DNK razlikuje od one modernog čovjeka, što podrazumijeva da su se ove dvije linije vjerojatno razdvojile prije 400 tisuća godina ili ranije. Ovaj nalaz upućuje na to da je parenje većih razmjera između ovih dviju grupa malo vjerojatno. Drugo, kada bi DNK modernih ljudi sadržavala neandertalsku DNK, očekivali bismo da bude najsličnija živućim Europljanima koji trenutno žive na nekadašnjem teritoriju neandertalaca. No neandertalska DNK nije ništa sličnija onoj živućih Europljana nego onoj modernih ljudi koji žive u drugim dijelovima svijeta. Treće, suvremene ljudske populacije pokazuju izuzetno nizak stupanj genetskih varijacija, što bi značilo da svi potječemo od relativno male populacije genetski homogenih predaka. Četvrto, postoji više genetskih varijacija među suvremenim afričkim populacijama nego među populacijama u drugim dijelovima svijeta. To je u skladu sa stajalištem da je moderni Homo sapiens prvo evoluirao u Africi, gdje je imao više vremena za akumulaciju genetske raznolikosti, a tada je jedna podskupina migrirala i naselila nove teritorije. Ukratko, većina genetskih nalaza podupire OOA teoriju.

Većina znanstvenika, iako ne svi, danas daje prednost nekoj od verzija OOA teorije o jedinstvenom porijeklu. Čini se da svi moderni ljudi dijele zajedničko porijeklo s Afrikancima koji su vjerojatno živjeli prije 120 do 220 tisuća godina. Riječima jednog istaknutog OOA zagovornika: „Pod kožom smo svi Afrikanci“ (Stringer, 2002). No rasprava o porijeklu modernog čovjeka i danas se nastavlja.


World Map of Y-DNA Haplogroups

 

Y-chromosome

Y-chromosomal Adam
A00 A0-T
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J       LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
N   O   K2b1     P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S Q  R

Y chromosome


Y-chromosome A

Africa


Haplogroup A the foundational haplogroup

 
San people (Bushman)

Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Unlike other Y-DNA clades, it is not defined by a specific mutation. It is the foundational haplogroup to all known patrilineal lineages carried by modern humans, and thus is the Y-chromosomal Adam.

 

Y-chromosome B

Africa


Y-chromosome B

Haplogroup B (B-M60) is common in parts of Africa, especially the tropical forests of West-Central Africa. It was the ancestral haplogroup of not only modern Pygmies like the Baka and Mbuti, but also Hadzabe from Tanzania, who often have been considered, in large part because of some typological features of their language, to be a remnant of Khoisan people in East Africa.


Y-chromosome CT - Out of Africa


c. 70,000 years ago

No male in paragroup CT has yet been discovered, which means in other words that all men in this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major sub-clades, CF and DE.


Y-chromosome DE

Tibet, Japan, Africa


Haplogroup DE

DE is unique because it is distributed in several geographically distinct clusters. Immediate subclade, haplogroup D, is normally found only in eastern Asia, and the other immediate subclade, haplogroup E, is common in Africa, Europe and the Middle East.


Y-chromosome D

Tibet, Japan

 
Haplogroup D

Haplogroup D-M174 along with haplogroup E contains the distinctive YAP polymorphism (which indicates their common ancestry), no haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes have been found anywhere outside of Asia.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA D

According to this Japanese blog, patrilineal descendants of Emperor Higashiyama had their Y-DNA tested and all belonged to haplogroup D1b1a2 (IMS-JST055457/CTS107), formerly known as D2a1b. The article explains that 6 million Japanese people carry the same Y-DNA lineage as the Imperial family and the Genji clan, and that they share a common ancestor about 1000 years ago. If this is correct, it could mean that most Japanese emperors, at least since the Heian period (794-1185) would have belonged to haplogroup D1b1a2, if non-paternity events did not occur.
A website published the modal haplotype of Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147-1199), the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate. He and the Minamonto (aka Genji) clan presumably belonged to the same haplogroup D1b1a2 (IMS-JST055457/CTS107) as the Imperial family, from whom they are probably descended. However little information is available on how many people were tested.

Y-chromosome E

Africa, West Asia, Southern Europe


Haplogroup E-V68


Haplogroup E-M81
 
Haplogroup E-M123
 

Haplogroup E-V13
 
Haplogroup E1b
 

Most members of haplogroup E-M96 belong to one of its identified subclades, and the E-M96 (E-P147, E-M75) is rare. E1a and E-M75 are found almost exclusively in Africa.

 

Distribution, Y-DNA E

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA E

Zahi Hawass et al. (2012) tested the remains of Ramesses III, the second pharaoh of Egypt's 20th dynasty. Based on 13 STR markers tested his haplogroup can be assigned as E1b1a. The 20th Dynasty of Egypt (1189-1077 BCE) started with Setnakhte and counted nine kings named Ramesses, from III to XI. The pharaohs are buried in the Valley of the Kings.
The Origins Centre at the University of the Witwatersrand tested the DNA of Nelson Mandela (1918-2013), the famous South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and determined that he belonged to haplogroup E1b1a.
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), the general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy, probably belonged to haplogroup E-V13 based on the Y-DNA results from another Garibaldi from the same province in his ancestral Liguria.
The Wright Brothers, the inventors of the world's first successful airplane, belonged to haplogroup E-V13. They were supposedly descended from Robert Wright of Brook Hall, Essex, England, which allowed the Wright Surname DNA Project to isolate their paternal lineage.
Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973), the 36th President of the United States, was identified as a member of haplogroup E1b1b1 through the Johnson/Johnston/Johnstone DNA Surname Project. His haplotype, although not confirmed by SNP testing yet, is predicted as E-V13.
According to the DNA results of a relative, Google co-founder Larry Page (b. 1973) might belong to haplogroup E-V13. As of November 2016, he was the 12th richest person in the world.
The Harvey Y-DNA Genetic Project managed to retrace the ancestry and identify the Y-chromosomal haplogroup of William Harvey (1578 -1657), the first person to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart. He belonged to the subclade E-M34.
Gérard Lucotte et al. (2012) recovered the DNA of Napoleon Bonaparte from beard hair follicules and compared his Y-DNA to that of one of his present-day descendants, Charles Napoléon. They established that both men belonged to haplogroup E-M34, a subclade which is thought to have reached Mediterranean Europe from the Levant during the Neolithic period. Napoleon I had previously been identified by Lucotte's team as a member of mtDNA haplogroup H.
The acclaimed theoretical physicist Albert Einstein is presumed to have belonged to Y-haplogroup E-Z830 based on the results from a patrilineal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein, Albert Einstein's great-grand-father. Approximately 20% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup E1b1b.
Steven Pinker is a Canadian experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, linguist, and popular science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University, and is known for his advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind.
The American actor and producer Nicolas Cage (born 1964),has been found to belong to haplogroup E1b1b-M84. His real name is Nicolas Kim Coppola, and his paternal great-grand-father emigrated to the U.S. from the South Italian town of Bernalda in Basilicata. He is the nephew of screenwriter, film director and producer Francis Ford Coppola, who shares the same haplogroup.
The French footballer of Algerian origin Zinedine Zidane (born 1972), is a member of haplogroup E1b1b (M81) according to his brother's DNA test. Zidane was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll.
The remains of the great Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio (1571-1610) were excavated to confirm the circumstances of his mysterious death at the age of 38. His DNA was compared to modern carriers of the same surname. The study revealed that he belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1.
Ronny Decorte, a geneticist from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, tested relatives of Adolf Hitler and determined that the Fürher belonged to haplogroup E1b1b. Ironically this haplogroup thought to be at the origin of Afro-Asiatic languages, which includes the Semitic languages and peoples that Hitler despised so much.
Sir David Attenborough (b. 1926), an English broadcaster and naturalist at the BBC explained in the Tree of Life how the Attenboroughs belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1. In 2002 he was named among the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote. His brother is the producer, director and actor Richard Attenborough (b. 1923 - pictured), who won two Academy Awards for Gandhi in 1983.

 

Morocco


Y-chromosome CF

 
Haplogroup CF

No living males or human remains belonging to the basal paragroup CF have yet been discovered. Its existence and distribution are inferred from the fact that haplogroups descended from CF include most human males – and a vast majority of the males living outside Africa.

Descendants: C, F


Y-chromosome C

East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania

   
Haplogroup C - Estimated migration root of haplogroup C in East and South Asia

Haplogroup C is found in ancient populations on every continent except Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males belonging to many peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania. It is also found at moderate frequencies among certain indigenous populations of South Asia and Southeast Asia.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA C

According to an analysis of the paternal lineages of Tungusic males conducted by Zerjal et al. (2003), Genghis Khan, founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, and his patrilineal descendants are believed to have belonged to Haplogroup C3 (M217).
Xue et al. (2005) estimated that Nurhaci (1559-1626), founder and first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) of China, and all subsequent Qing emperors, probably belonged to Haplogroup C3c, a subclade that seems to have arisen in Manchuria some 500 years ago. Shin Yan et al. (2014) tested the Y chromosomes of seven modern male individuals who claim belonging to Aisin Gioro family, and they concluded that the haplogroup of the Imperial House of Qing Dynasty was C3b2b1*-M401(xF5483).

Y-chromosome F


Haplogroup F

Haplogroup F is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup. The clade and its subclades constitute over 90% of paternal lineages outside of Africa. It is primarily found throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia.

Descendants: F1, F2, F3, GHIJK


Y-chromosome G

West Asia, Europe, Central Asia

 
Haplogroup G-M201

At the level of national populations, G-M201 is most commonly found in Georgia; it is found at even higher levels among many other regional and minority populations in The Caucasus. G-M201 is also widely distributed at low frequencies, among ethnic groups of Europe, South Asia, Central Asia, and North Africa.

 

Distribution, Y-DNA G

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA G

Ötzi the Iceman, Europe's oldest natural human mummy, dating from 5,300 years ago, had his full genome sequenced (the oldest European genome ever tested) and was found to belong to haplogroup G2a-L91 (G2a2a2, formerly known as G2a4).
On 12 September 2012, archeologists from the University of Leicester announced that they had discovered what they believed were the remains of King Richard III of England (1452-1485) within the former Greyfriars Friary Church in the city of Leicester (see Exhumation of Richard III). The skeleton's DNA matched exactly the mitochondiral haplogroup (J1c2c) of modern matrilineal descendants of Anne of York, Richard's elder sister, confirming the identity of the medieval king. Further tests published in December 2014 revealed that his Y-chromosomal haplogroup was G2 (not tested for downstream mutations, but statistically very likely to be G2a3 as a northern European). This however did not match the Y-DNA of three modern relatives (who were all R1b-U152 xL2) descended from Edward III, Richard III's great-great-grand-father. Richard descends from the House of York, while the modern relatives descend from the House of Lancaster via John of Gaunt. Therefore it cannot be determined at present when the non-paternity event occured in the Plantagenet lineage, and whether most of the Plantagenets monarchs belonged to haplogroup G2 or R1b-U152. Both haplogroups are considerably more common in France than in Britain, however, which is consistent with the French roots of the House of Plantagenets.
Joseph Stalin, who was of Georgian origin, belonged to haplogroup G2a1a. This was determined by testing his grandson, Alexander Burdonsky (his son Vasily's son).
Larry Bird (b. 1956), an American professional basketball executive, former coach and former player for the Boston Celtics, is thought to belong to haplogroup G-Z6748 (downstream of Z1816 and Y8903) based on the testing of several relatives descending from Thomas Bird at the Haplogroup G-L497 Y-DNA Project. Larry Bird is the only person in NBA history to be named Most Valuable Player, Coach of the Year, and Executive of the Year.

 

Georgia

 


Y-chromosome H

South Asia


Haplogroup H

Haplogroup H is found at high frequencies among some populations in South Asia, particularly the subclade H1 (H-M69), including its direct descendant H1a (M52). Outside South Asia, H1a1 (H-M82) – which is a direct descendant of H1a (M52) – is found commonly in the paternal lineage of Romani people.

 

India

 
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe


Y-chromosome IJ


Haplogroup IJ

The immediate descendants of IJ are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J. Its sole sibling is K (which includes most of the world's male population).


Y-chromosome I

Europe, West Asia

 
Haplogroup I

I-M170 is one of the most numerous haplogroups among European males. Subclades can be found in most present-day European populations, with peaks in some Northern European and South East European countries. Consequently, I-M170 represents up to one-fifth of the male population of Europe, being the continent's second major Y-DNA haplogroup (behind Haplogroup R).

 

Haplogroup I1

 
Haplogroup I1

The haplogroup reaches its peak frequencies in Sweden (52 percent of males in Västra Götaland County) and western Finland (more than 50 percent in Satakunta province). In terms of national averages, I-M253 is found in 35–38 per cent of Swedish males, 32.8% of Danish males, about 31.5% of Norwegian males, and about 28% of Finnish males.

 

Distribution, Y-DNA I1

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA I1

Malmströma et al. tested the DNA of Birger Jarl and his son Eric Birgersson, and they were identified as members of haplogroup I1. Birger Jarl was one of Sweden's greatest medieval statesman. He was the founder of Stockholm, and acted as regent of Sweden for 18 years. His sons Valdemar and Magnus suceeded each others as kings of Sweden, and their descendants for one hundred years. This dynasty is known as the House of Bjelbo, and all six kings were presumably members of haplogroup I1.
Based on the numerous results from the Gentis Grimaldorum DNA Project, the original House of Grimaldi, which inlcuded the Lords then Princes of Monaco until Louis II of Monaco (1870-1949), belonged to a Scandinavian branch of haplogroup I1a1 (L22>Y3549>P109>Y3662>S14887). The House of Grimaldi also produced three doges of Genoa, a prince of Salerno, and several archbishops and cardinals. The current Princes of Monaco descend from the House of Polignac.
The Hamilton DNA Project compared the Y-DNA of four descendants of Alexander Hamilton, one of the a Founding Fathers of the United States of America. All shared very close STR values, proving beyond reasonable doubt that they shared a same recent patrilineal ancestor.
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), the 7th president of the United States, most probably belonged to haplogroup I1 based on a comparison of his genealogy and results from the Jackson DNA Project.
The haplogroup of the celebrated Russian writer Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually known as Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), was inferred by testing one of his descendants, Pyotr Tolstoy. He is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time, and is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction.
Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), the 30th President and 29th Vice President of the United States, was identified as a member of haplogroup I1 according to testing of relatives.
The personal genomics company 23andMe tested the Y-chromosomal haplogroup of business magnate and multi-billionaire Warren Buffett and singer/film producer Jimmy Buffett to determine whether they shared a common patrilineal ancestor. Both men were found to belong to haplogroup I1, though apparently not to closely related subclades.
Bill Clinton (born 1946), who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001, most probably belonged to haplogroup I1 based on the results of distant cousins testing available at Ysearch.org.
The English musician, singer-songwriter, and actor Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, known professionally by his stage name Sting (b. 1951), was revealed to belong to haplogroup I1 by the PBS TV series Finding Your Roots. He was the principal songwriter, lead singer, and bassist for the new wave rock band The Police from 1977 to 1984, before launching a solo career. With The Police, Sting became one of the world's best-selling music artists. Solo and with The Police combined, he has sold over 100 million records.

 

Sweden - Norway

 

Haplogroup I2


Haplogroup I2


Haplogroup I2a1
 
Haplogroup I2a2
 

The haplogroup reaches its maximum frequency in the Dinaric Alps in the Balkans.

Basal I2 (I-M438*) has been found in ancient remains from Frankthi cave, in the eastern Peloponnese region of Greece. Along with its modern presence in Crete and Sicily, this may suggest that the haplogroup originated in the Eastern Mediterranean.

 

Distribution, Y-DNA I2

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA I2

The famous Protestant reformer Martin Luther appears to have belonged to haplogroup I2a-Din-N (L147.2+) according to probable relatives whose haplotypes can be found on the Luther Surname DNA Project, including one genealogically traceable 1st cousin 13 times removed, as well as on ySearch (especially ySearch ID: YTE6E).
The Serbian-American scientist and inventor Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), most famous for his work on the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system, the induction motor, the Tesla coil, etc., is thought to have belonged to haplogroup I2a-Din-S (L147.2+). The Serbian DNA Project at Poreklo has tested a Tesla from the same village as Nikola's father, who is very likely from the same Tesla line.
Miklós Horthy (1868-1957), was Regent of of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1920 to 1944. Prior to this, Admiral Horthy served as commander-in-chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the last year of the First World War. In 1919, he ousted the communists of Béla Kun from Hungary and banned the Hungarian Communist Party. The following year was declared Regent and Head of State. Cousins of Horthy posted their Y-DNA results at MolGen, and all belonged to I2a-Din-N (or I2a1b3a in current ISOGG nomenclature).
According to the results of a cousin posted on Poreklo, the Serbian tennis player Novak Djokovic (b. 1987) belongs to I2-PH908 (downstream of L147.2 and S17250). Djokovic is considered one of the greatest tennis players of all time. As of April 2017, he has won 12 Grand Slam singles titles, the fourth most in history, and held the No. 1 spot in the ATP rankings for a total of 223 weeks.
All the Dukes of Hamilton since William Douglas-Hamilton (1634-1694) belonged to haplogroup I2-M223-Isles-E L1193+ based on the data from the Hamilton Surname DNA Project. The dukedom is the highest ranking title in the Peerage of Scotland. Famous dukes have included the art collector Alexander Hamilton and the pioneering aviator Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1903-1973), the chief pilot of the first flight over Mount Everest.
A direct descendant of Sir Henry Clinton (1730-1795) tested as I2-M223, predicted with moderate confidence to be I2-Isles-E L1193+, or I2a2a1 in current ISOGG nomenclature. Sir Henry Clinton was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America during the American War of Independence. His notable patrilineal relatives included the Earls of Lincoln and most of the Dukes of Newcastle, all presumably belonging to the same haplogroup.
Professor Lucotte tested the Y-DNA of Napoleon I, Napoleon III and their descendants, and was able to confirm that Napoleon III was not the biological nephew of the first Emperor of the French. While Napoleon I belonged to haplogroup E-M34, Napoleon III, the presumed son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais, belonged to haplogroup I2 (apparently to the M223 subclade). It has been hypothetised that Napoleon III was the son of Count Charles de Flahaut, who was Hortense's lover and had an illegitimate son (the Duke of Morny) with her three years after Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's birth. In that case, Napoleon III would be the grandson of Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. Another possibility is that Napoleon III was fathered by Carel Hendrik Verhuell.
Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), the 17th President and 16th Vice President of the United States was identified as a member of haplogroup I2a2a (former I2b1) based on the results from the I-M223 Project.
The American magazine publisher Henry Luce (1898-1967) belonged to haplogroup I2-M223-Isles-E L1193+, (a.k.a. I2a2a1 in current ISOGG nomenclature) according to the Luce Surname Project. He launched the magazines Time, Life, Fortune, and Sports Illustrated and was called "the most influential private citizen in the America of his day".
The American martial artist, actor, film producer and screenwriter Chuck Norris (b. 1940) belongs to haplogroup I2a2a-Z79 (downstream of Z161) according to WikiTree.
Stephen King (b. 1947), the renowned American author of contemporary horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy, belongs to haplogroup I2a2a-Y7272 (downstream of Z161 and S2364) according to genealogical research. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, and British Fantasy Society Awards, among others. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters.
The I2* Haplogroup Project (new ISOGG I2b and I2c) was able to determine that the haplotype of the Georgian house of Tsitsishvili was I2c-B (L596+). The most famous member Pavel Tsitsianov (1754-1806), an Imperial Russian military commander and infantry general who also served as head of the Russian troops in Georgia and Viceroy of the Caucasus.
The American rock legend and cultural icon Elvis Presley (1935-1977) was revealed to belong to haplogroup I in the book Old World Roots of the Cherokee (p.42). Elvis's paternal grandfather was born out of wedlock and got his mother's surname. His Y-DNA test showed numerous exact matches with the Wallace surname in Scotland, who within haplogroup I belong overwhelmingly to the rare haplogroup I2c1a2a1a1a (F2044).

 

Bosnia - Serbia


Y-chromosome J

West Asia, North Africa, Horn of Africa, Southern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia


Y-chromosome J

Haplogroup J-M304 is believed to have evolved in Western Asia. The clade spread from there during the Neolithic, primarily into North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Socotra, the Caucasus, Southeast Europe, Central Asia, Iran, Pakistan and western India.


Haplogroup J1
 
Haplogroup J2
 

Haplogroup J1

Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in or near the Middle East, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and Ethiopia. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa, Southern Europe, and amongst Jewish groups, especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, throughout Europe and as far east as Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.

Haplogroup J2

Haplogroup J-M172 is found in Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Europe and North Africa, but it is usually associated with Northwest Asia. It is thought that J-M172 might have originated between the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia and the Levant.

 

Distribution, Y-DNA J1

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA J1

The Hashemites are the royal family of the Hejaz (1916–1925), Iraq (1921–1958), and Jordan (1921–present). The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca – also referred to as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Their eponymous ancestor is Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The Arab DNA forums and DNA Project admins reported that two test results of members of the Jordanian royal family (private kits) are positive for L859 mutation under haplogroup J1.
According to a study conducted by L.A. Ferydoun Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn and Sahar Khosrovani published in Qajar Studies, Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII (2007), Qajar dynasty, the Iranian royal family who ruled over Persia from 1785 to 1925, belonged to haplogroup J1.
The acclaimed Jewish actor and director Dustin Hoffman (b. 1937) appears to belongs to haplogroup J1-Z18271 (downstream of ZS227), which corresponds to the lineage of the Y-chromosomal Aaron. During his career, Dustin Hoffman has won 2 Academy Award, was nominated for 5 additional ones, and won 6 Golden Globes out of 13 nominations. He has received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1999, and the Kennedy Center Honors Award in 2012.

 

Marsh Arabs

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA J2

The Earl of Eglinton, a Scottish noble family descended from Hugh Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Eglinton (c. 1460–1545), belongs to haplogroup J2a1-L26 according to FTDNA Montgomery DNA Project.
The Rothschild family, who established an international banking business, acquired the largest fortune in modern world history and established a true dynasty in the 19th century, apparently belonged to haplogroup J2a1-L210 (a subclade of M67) based on the results from the Rothschild DNA Project and of the J2-M172 Haplogroup Research.
John Curtin (1885-1945), the 14th Prime Minister of Australia from 1941 to 1945, was identified as a member of haplogroup J2a4h2 (F3133+) by the Curtin Clan Y-DNA Project.
Burt Bacharach (b. 1928) is an American singer–songwriter, composer, record producer and pianist. A six-time Grammy Award winner and three-time Academy Award winner, he is known for his popular hit songs and compositions from the late 1950s through the 1980s. He belongs to the subclade J2a1-L556/L560.
Mike Nichols (1931-2014) was a German-born American television, stage and film director, writer, producer and comedian. He is one of a small group of people who have won an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony Award. He belonged to the subclade J2a1b.
According to the DNA test of a relative, Hollywood actor, screenwriter and film producer, Adam Sandler (b. 1966) belongs to haplogroup J2a1-Z30390 (downstream of M67 and L210).
The American actor and filmmaker Ben Affleck, famous among others for his roles in Good Will Hunting, Shakespeare in Love, Pearl Harbor, Daredevil and Hollywoodland, and his brother Casey Affleck, an actor, film director, screenwriter, and producer, were identified as members of haplogroup J2a1d (M319) through Ben's DNA test, which was revealed by the PBS television series Finding Your Roots. They descend from Robert Affleck (1785-1854), listed on the J2 Y-DNA Project.

Y-chromosome K


Y-chromosome K

A sublineage of haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant clades comprise a populous geographically diverse haplogroup. They have long been found in men on every continent.

Descendants: LT, K2

 

Y-chromosome LT


Y-chromosome LT

No confirmed cases of the basal paragroup LT have been identified among living males or human remains.

Descendants: L, T


Y-chromosome L

South Asia, West Asia


Haplogroup L

Haplogroup L-M20 is is most commonly found in populations native to South Asia, especially Afghanistan, Pakistan and South India. The clade also occurs in Tajikistan and Anatolia, as well as at lower frequencies in Iran, Western Europe, Central Europe, Northeastern Europe, the Caucasus, Balkans and Central Asia. The subclade L2 (L-L595), while it is extremely rare, is seldom found outside Western Europe.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA L

A study by Chuan-Chao Wang et al. (2013) investigated the Y chromosomes of Sayyid Ajjal, the ancestor of many Muslims in areas all across China, through his modern descendants. Sayyid Ajjal was Yunnan's first provincial governor in history and was of Arab, Turkic or Persian Muslim origin. One of his most illustrious descendant was admiral Zheng He (1371-1433), sometimes dubbed the Chinese Columbus, commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. Their lineage was assigned to haplogroup L1a-M76.

Y-chromosome T

West Asia, Horn of Africa, North Africa, Southern Europe, South Asia


Haplogroup T

T-M184 is found at its highest frequencies among some populations in East Africa and East India.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA T

The testing of Thomas Jefferson's DNA revealed that the third US president belonged to haplogroup T.

Y-chromosome K2

Y-chromosomal Adam
A00 A0-T
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J       LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
 O   K2b1     P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S Q  R

Haplogroup K2

Relative to its age, the internal structure of K2 is extremely complex, and subclades of it are carried by males native to regions including Oceania, South East Asia, East Asia, Central Asia, the Americas, Europe, the Horn of Africa and South Asia.

The only living males reported as carrying the basal paragroup K2 (K-M526) are indigenous Australian males. Up to 27% of them may carry K2 and approximately 29% of Aboriginal Australian males belong to subclades of K2b1.


Y-chromosome N

Northern Asia, Northern Europe


Haplogroup N

Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup typical of Northern Eurasia.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA N

According to the descendant testing listed at the Russian Nobility DNA Project at FTDNA, the branch of the Rurik dynasty descended from Vladimir II Monomakh (Monomakhoviches) belong to Y-DNA haplogroup N1c1, and includes Alexander Nevsky (1220-1263) and Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584). Notwithstanding, the branch descended from Vladimir II Monomakh's presumed paternal cousin Oleg I of Chernigov (Olgoviches) belonged to R1a1a. The Y-DNA from the Proto-Rurikid branches is N1c1 and matches the distinctive haplotype of the Monomakhoviches. Furthermore, this N1c1 haplotype possess the distinctive value DYS390=23, found in Scandinavia but not in Uralic populations, confirming that this was indeed the original haplotype of the Varangian prince Rurik (c. 830-c. 879) who established the Kievan Rus'.
The Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project at FTDNA managed to determine that the Lithuanian Gediminid dynasty, although not descended from the Rurik dynasty, also belongs to haplogroup N1c1. The House of Geminidas ruled as Grand Duke of Lithuania from ca. 1285 to 1440. An offshoot of Geminids is the Jagiellonian dynasty who ruled as the Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania from 1386 to 1572, and also include two Kings of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia between 1471 and 1526.

Y-chromosome O

East Asia, Southeast Asia


Haplogroup O

Haplogroup O-M175 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is primarily found among populations in Southeast Asia and East Asia. It also is found among some populations of South Asia, Central Asia, Oceania, Madagascar, and the Comoros.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA O

Yo-Yo Ma (b. 1955) is a Chinese-American cellist. Born in Paris, he spent his schooling years in New York City and was a child prodigy, performing from the age of five. He graduated from the Juilliard School and Harvard University and has enjoyed a prolific career as both a soloist performing with orchestras around the world and a recording artist. He has recorded more than 90 albums and has received 18 Grammy Awards. The PBS TV series Faces of America disclosed that he belonged to mtDNA haplogroup O1a1.
Zhu Xi (1130-1200), the most influential Neo-Confucian scholar and philosopher in Chinese history, may have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O2a1a, based on the test of one documented descendant. This needs to be confirmed by further descendant testing.
Gia Long (1762-1820), the first Emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty of Vietnam, could have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O2a, based on the test of one documented descendant. The results need to be corroborated by other descendant testing.

Y-chromosome MS

New Guinea

 
Haplogroup M - Haplogroup S

It is not clear at present whether the basal paragroup K2b1 is carried by any living males. Individuals carrying subclades of K2b1 are found primarily among Papuan peoples, Micronesian peoples, indigenous Australians, and Polynesians.


Y-chromosome Q

Northern Asia, Central Asia, Americas

 
Haplogroup Q

Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and in some regions of Central Asia and Northern Siberia.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA Q

According to commercial tests conducted by other members of the Jewish Oppenheimer family, the American theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) belonged to haplogroup Q1b. Oppenheimer played a major role in the Manhattan Project and is considered one of the fathers of the atomic bomb.
Deepak Chopra (b. 1947) is an Indian American author, public speaker, alternative medicine advocate, and a prominent figure in the New Age movement. He was revealed to belong to haplogroup Q1b-L275 by the PBS television series Finding Your Roots.
Tony Kushner (b. 1956) is an American playwright and screenwriter. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1993 for his play Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes. He co-authored with Eric Roth the screenplay for the 2005 film Munich, and he wrote the screenplay for the 2012 film Lincoln, both critically acclaimed movies, for which he received Academy Award nominations for Best Adapted Screenplay. For his work, he received a National Medal of Arts from President Barack Obama in 2013. The PBS television series Finding Your Roots mentioned that he carries a Y-haplogroup common among Asians and Native Americans and found in 6% of the Jews, which can only be haplogroup Q. All Jewish Q fall under the Q1b branch.

Y-chromosome R

Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, Central Africa


Haplogroups F > K > R

Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations.

Some descendant subclades are common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the West Asia, Africa and North America. Others are primarily from West Asia and South Asia.

 

Haplogroup R1a - Haplogroup R1b


Haplogroup R1a
 
Haplogroup R1b
 

Haplogroup R1a

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia, Central Europe and southern Siberia to South Asia.

Haplogroup R1b

It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (e.g. the Bashkir minority) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon). It is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa and Central Asia.

 

Distribution, Y-DNA R1a

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA R1a

The Drake DNA Surname Project managed to identify the haplogroup of Sir Francis Drake, the famous English navigator and privateer from the Elizabethan era. Two of his known descendants were tested by two different companies and both lineages had practically identical STR values, which confirmed their recent common ancestry. Other Drakes also turned up with the same haplotype. All of them belong to the typically north-western European R1a-L664 (DYS388=10).
In 2003, an Oxford University scientist traced the Y-chromosome signature of Somerled of Argyll (1100-1164), a military and political leader of the Scottish Isles of Norse-Gaelic descent. Somerland drove the Vikings out of Scotland and became King of Mann and the Isles. He was the founder of Clan Somhairle, the father of the founder of Clan MacDougall, and the paternal grandfather of the founder of Clan Donald (which includes the MacDonalds and MacAlisters). The researcher reported that the tested members of these clans with a confirmed paper trail all belonged to the Norwegian variety of R1a-L448, and more specifically to the subclade L176.1, which to date has been found almost exclusively among the descendants of Somerled. In 2005, geneticist Bryan Sykes asked for DNA samples from clan chiefs (Lord Godfrey Macdonald, Sir Ian Macdonald of Sleat, Ranald MacDonald of Clan Ranald, William McAlester of Loup and Ranald MacDonnell of Glengary) to complete the project, and all matched the presumed Somerled haplotype. Not all Macdonalds, MacAlisters and MacDougalls are descended from Somerled though. The majority (about 70%) are members of the Celtic haplogroup R1b. Check the Donald Clan Genetic Genealogy Project for more information.
An analysis of the Hume DNA Project has provided conclusive evidence that the Scottish philosopher, historian and economist David Hume (1711-1776) belonged to haplogroup R1a-Z284 (CTS4179 subclade). This subclade is the most common Scottish variety of R1a. It is belived to have come from Norway with the Vikings. David Hume was one of the fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment and one of the leading Empiricist philosophers.
The American actor, producer, writer, and director Tom Hanks, best known for his roles in the films Philadelphia, Forrest Gump, Saving Private Ryan, Catch Me If You Can, The Da Vinci Code, was found to belong to haplogroup R1a-Z284 through the Hanks DNA Surname Project as a descendant of William Hanks of Richmond, Virginia.
The Swedish actor Max von Sydow, who played in eleven films by Ingmar Bergman and many Hollywood movies and series, including more recently Game of Thrones, was identified as a member of haplogroup R1a-Z280 (Pomeranian P269 subclade) through the the test of a 2nd paternal cousin at FTDNA.
King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, belongs to haplogroup R1a-Z280 (north-western Slavic S18681 subclade) according to the testing of a distant cousin with FTDNA. He is the son of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and German diplomat Claus von Amsberg, whose family hails from Mecklenburg.
Based on descendant testing, it appears most likely that the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty belonged to haplogroup R1a-Z93. This has not been officially confirmed yet. All sultans of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1922) descend in patrilineal line from Osman I, making it one of the longest reigning Y-chromosomal lineage in history.
The Israeli politician Benjamin Netanyahu, who has served four times as Prime Minister of Israel, belongs to haplogroup R1a-Z93 (Jewish Y2630 subclade) according to his brother's Ido's DNA test at FTDNA.
A team led by Prof. Albinas Kuncevičius tested the DNA extracted from the remains of Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł (1512-1584), Count Palatine of Vilnius and Grand Chancellor of Lithuania, and of his son Mikołaj Radziwiłł (1546-1589). They identified them as a members of haplogroup R1a. By extension, the whole Radziwiłł family would belong to that haplogroup. The Radziwiłł are a princely lineage originally from Lithuania who also played an important role in Belarusian, Polish and German history.
The American journalist, television personality Anderson Cooper, best known for being the primary anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360°, belongs to haplogroup R1a according to the PBS TV series Finding Your Roots.

 

Famous faces, Y-DNA R1b

The Adams Surname Y-DNA Project compared the Y-DNA of 15 families that have an oral history of being related to the US Presidents John Adams (second president of the United States) and his son John Quincy Adams (6th president). All the men tested share the same haplotype that falls into the S6849 (aka FGC2389) subclade, downstream of R1b-S1200.
Larmuseau et al. (2013) tested the Y-DNA of three living members of the House of Bourbon, one descending from Louis XIII of France via King Louis Philippe I, and two from Louis XIV via Philip V of Spain. They concluded that all three men share the same STR haplotype and belonged to haplogroup R1b-U106 (Z381* subclade). These results contradict earlier studies by Laluez-Fo et al. (2010), who had analysed the DNA from a handkerchief dipped in the presumptive blood of Louis XVI after his execution, as well as by Charlier et al. (2012), who tested the DNA of the severed head which allegedly belonged to Henry IV of France. Both of these studies had identified the remains as belonging to haplogroup G2a. All kings of France being descended in patrilineal line from Robert the Strong (820-866), unless a non-paternity event happened some time before Louis XIII, it can be assumed that all kings of France belonged to the same R1b-Z381 lineage. The House of Bourbon also includes all the kings of Spain from Philip V (1683-1746) to this day with King Juan Carlos, all the kings of the Two Sicilies, the grand dukes of Luxembourg since 1964, and of course all the dukes or Orléans and the dukes of Bourbon.
The lineage of the House of Wettin was identified as R1b-U106 (Z381 > Z156 > Z305 > DF98+ branch) by the testing of two known descendants of the Wettin line by Brad Michael Little. The results confirmed that the two men, who share a common ancestor in Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, possess the same haplogroup and haplotype. Members of the House of Wettin include the Kings Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII and George VI of the United Kingdom, all the Kings of the Belgians, the Kings of Portugal from 1853 to 1910, the Kings of Bulgaria from 1887 to 1946, several Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania, the Margraves of Meissen from 1075 to 1423, the Electors of Saxony from 1423 to 1806, the Kings of Saxony from 1806 to 1918, and the rulers of the numerous smaller Saxon duchies.
James K. Polk (1795-1849), the 11th president of the United States, was a member of L48 subclade based on the results from the Polk-Pollock DNA Project. He was a descendant of William Polk/Pollock (c. 1700-1757).
According to the Grant DNA Project, Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), the 18th President of the United States and the military commander of the American Civil War, belonged to the Z159 subclade of R1b-U106, downstream of L47.
The two first human beings to have their whole genome sequenced, James D. Watson, the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, and biologist Craig Venter both happen to be members of Y-DNA haplogroup R1b-S21 (U106), although they belong to distinct subclades (Z30, downstream of Z9 for Watson, and L45, downstream of L47 for Venter). Though both are American citizens, their patrilineal ancestors are respectively Scottish and German.
According to the Stewart Stuart DNA Project House of Stuart, who ruled Scotland from 1371, then also England and Ireland from 1603 until 1707, belongs to the S781 branch of R1b-L21, downstream of DF13 and L744.
The Buchanan DNA Project confirmed that the 15th President of the United States, James Buchanan (1791-1868) was a descendant of the Scottish Clan Buchanan, and as such belonged to the CTS11722 subclade of R1b-L21, downstream of L1335.
William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898), a British Liberal politician who served a record four times as Prime Minister under Queen Victoria, belonged to R1b-L21 based on a comparison of his genealogy with the results from Gladstone DNA Project.
The analysis of his descendants's Y-chromosomal DNA confirmed that Joseph Smith (1805-1844), the founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement, belonged to haplogroup R1b-M222.
The forensic analysis of the skeletal remains of Che Guevara (1928-1967), the Argentine Marxist revolutionary and major figure of the Cuban Revolution, revealed that he belonged to haplogroup R1b-L21.
Based on the data from the Habsburg Family Project, there is a high likelihood that the haplogroup of the House of Habsburg was R1b-U152 (L2+ branch). The Habsburg originated in the eponymous village in northern Switzerland. They first became Kings of the Romans in 1273, obtained the title of Duke of Austria. The Habsburgs provided all the Holy Roman Emperors but one from 1440 until the dissolution of the empire in 1806. The Habsburgs retained the title of Emperor of Austria, then Austro-Hungary until 1918. Their dynasty also ruled over Spain, Naples, Tuscany, Parma and Milan, among others. Check also Haplogroups of European kings and queens for mtDNA lines of many Habsburg family members.
The first President of the United States, George Washington (1732-1799) may well have belonged to the L2 subclade of U152. This deduction is based on the results from the Washington DNA Project. George Washington's ancestors hailed from Oxfordshire, and before that from Lancashire. Washington is a relatively rare surname and was originally distributed exactly in those two regions according to the 1881 survey. All project members with ancestry confirmed in those regions share the same haplotype, hinting at a common paternal ancestry.
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), the 16th president of the United States, appears to have belonged to R1b-S20376 (U152>L2>Z142>Z150>S20376). The Lincoln DNA Project tested several descendants from Samuel "the weaver" Lincoln, who was Abraham Lincoln's great-great-great-great-grandfather, and they all share the same haplotype.
Grover Cleveland (1837-1908), the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, could have belonged to R1b-L20, a subclade of L2, based on the numerous results from the Cleveland DNA Project.
Professor Tomasz Kozłowski tested the Y-DNA of Prince Janusz III of Masovia, Duke of Czersk, Warsaw, Liw, Zakroczym and Nur. He was a direct descendent of the Piast Dynasty, the first historical dynasty ruling over Poland, starting with Prince Mieszko I (c. 930–992) and ending in 1370 with the death of King Casimir III the Great. The Piast family continued to rule over the Duchy of until 1526 and the Duchy of Silesia until 1675. Prof. Kozłowski announced that the prince belonged to haplogroup R1b, and therefore probably also other members of that royal lineage, including all the Dukes of Masovia (1138-1526), as long as no non-paternity event took place.
Bogdanowicza et al. (2009) tested the Y-chromosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA of the exhumed remains of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. They established that he belonged to Y-haplogroup R1b and mt-haplogroup H.
Rogaev et al. (2009) tested the DNA of the presumed grave of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and all his five children, and compared them against archival blood specimens from Nicholas II as well as against samples from descendants of both paternal and maternal lineages. The results unequivocally confirmed that the grave was the one of the last Russian Royal family. Nicholas II belonged to Y-haplogroup R1b and mt-haplogroup T2. Consequently, all Russian emperors of the Romanov dynasty since Peter III (1728-1762) also belonged to haplogroup R1b. This paternal lineage ultimately descends from the House of Oldenburg, which includes all the Kings of Denmark since Christian I (reigned from 1448) as well as several Kings of Norway, Sweden and Greece, and the current heirs to the British throne (Prince Charles and his son Prince William).
Quite a few U.S. Presidents had their haplogroups deducted from descendant testing. Among those whose R1b subclade remains to be determine, we find Zachary Taylor (12th), Franklin Pierce (14th), William McKinley (25th), and Woodrow Wilson (28th).
The great English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882), who proposed the scientific theory of evolution and the process of natural selection, was a member of haplogroup R1b according to the test results from his great-great-grandson.
Kevin Bacon (b. 1958), an American actor and musician whose films include musical-drama film Footloose (1984), the controversial historical conspiracy legal thriller JFK (1991), the legal drama A Few Good Men (1992), the historical docudrama Apollo 13 (1995), and the mystery drama Mystic River (2003). Bacon has won a Golden Globe Award and three Screen Actors Guild Awards, and was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award. The Guardian named him one of the best actors never to have received an Academy Award nomination.
The American actor Robert John Downey Jr. (b. 1965) had his Y-haplogroup was revealed by the PBS television series Finding Your Roots. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor and won him the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role in the movie Chaplin (1992), and won a Golden Globe Award for his role in the TV series Ally McBeal. He is also known for portraying the role of Marvel Comics superhero Iron Man.

 

Denmark - Éire - Wales


Zastupljenost Haplogrupa u Europi

 


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